By Michael Brower
Ten years in the past, America's short love affair with renewable strength resources got here to an abrupt finish, the sufferer of declining oil costs and executive indifference. yet renewable strength is still the single achievable long term replacement to depletable and polluting oil, fuel, and coal. Cool strength presents the 1st significant evaluate of development within the box of renewable strength applied sciences - sunlight, wind, biomass (plant matter), hydroelectric, and geothermal - because the mid-1980s. It analyzes their near-term and long term strength to displace fossil fuels, and illuminates the position they can play in mitigating environmental difficulties corresponding to pollution, acid rain, and international warming. Energy-policy professional Michael Brower argues that, with the ideal guidelines, renewable strength may supply up to 1/2 America's strength wishes inside of 40 years. He identifies the industry limitations that might must be got rid of and argues that if the hidden charges of fossil fuels are considered, renewables seem to be a less expensive resource of recent strength provide than fossil fuels: the reliability and potency in their gear have better and the price of fitting, keeping, and operating renewable platforms has declined. Brower devotes a bankruptcy to every renewable strength resource, describes its present program, and discusses its expenditures. He additionally analyzes new applied sciences below improvement and assesses their optimistic and destructive attributes. Introductory chapters set renewables within the context of present strength and environmental coverage, and the final bankruptcy outlines steps which may aid velocity the transition to a renewable-energy economic system. Michael Brower is a physicist and holds the location of study Director for the Union of involved Scientists.
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Extra info for Cool Energy: Renewable Solutions to Environmental Problems - Revised Edition
Because heat conducts through rock so slowly, geothermal energy is not strictly a renewable resource, though it is so large in absolute terms that it is usually counted as renewable. See chapter 7. 3. , discounted and averaged over the lifetime of the technology), and calculated using conventional electric-utility assumptions and methods. See EPRI (1989c). 4. 8 million (6 percent) went to renewable energy, $391 million (15 percent) went to clean coal technology, $461 million (18 percent) to other fossil-fuel technology, $306 million (12 percent) to nuclear fission, $275 million (11 percent) to nuclear fusion, and the rest to various other programs (Sissine 1992).
9 Several factors were responsible for the company's remarkable suc cess. 5 percent), allowed the company to secure a market for its first plants even at their high initial cost. Second, LUZ succeeded in greatly reducing capital costs and improving performance for each successive plant it built. The installed cost fell from $5,979/kW for SEGS I to $3,011/kW for SEGS IX, a drop of 50 percent. In addition, the newer LUZ plants produce electricity 20 percent more efficiently than the older ones, thanks to higher temperatures achieved in the collector fluid and improved tur bine efficiencies (Kearney et a1.
There are power plants operating in Southern California, for example, that run on 75 percent solar energy and 25 percent natural gas and supply reliable power year-round. Natural gas can also supplement solar energy in residential, commercial, and indus trial heating applications for little extra cost. Finally, in those cases where storage is needed, numerous options exist, some of which, such as compressed air energy storage, are likely to be practical and relatively inexpensive in many parts of the country (see chapter 8).
Cool Energy: Renewable Solutions to Environmental Problems - Revised Edition by Michael Brower