By Jeffrey P. Greenfield, Caroline B. Long
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Extra info for Common Neurosurgical Conditions in the Pediatric Practice: Recognition and Management
There are also some reﬂexes known as “nonstretch” or superﬁcial reﬂexes. Among these is the abdominal reﬂex which is elicited by stroking or lightly scratching one side of the abdomen. This should trigger a small ipsilateral contraction of the abdominal muscles and is one way to test for sensation and motor integrity of the thoracic roots 8 through 12, which may be damaged in a spinal cord injury, but does not otherwise have large associated muscle groups for easy testing. The cremasteric reﬂex causes elevation of the ipsilateral testicle upon upward stimulation of the inner thigh.
3 Birth Trauma to the Scalp and Skull 29 Subgaleal hematoma Caput succadaneum Cephalohematoma Subdural hematoma Epidural hematoma Epicranial aponeurosis Periosteum Skull Brain Skin Dura Fig. 2 Anatomic layers between the brain and the skull deﬁne speciﬁc injury planes Cephalohematoma Cephalohematomas, also referred to as subperiosteal hematomas, are scalp masses seen in infants following delivery, and are most commonly associated with vacuum-assisted deliveries . The blood sources of these hematomas are the diploic veins of the skull which communicate superﬁcially with veins in the periosteum.
This usually diminishes by 4–5 months, which is the age many babies begin to roll over. Of note, a normal tonic neck reﬂex can provoke asymmetries in tone and position, and thus it is important to make sure the head is midline during a neurologic examination. 1 for a list of some developmental reﬂexes and their expected age resolution. Coordination Although coordination is commonly thought of as cerebellar-mediated process, coordination is the integration of many different pathways which are all necessary to produce accurate movements.
Common Neurosurgical Conditions in the Pediatric Practice: Recognition and Management by Jeffrey P. Greenfield, Caroline B. Long