By I. Klotz, R. Rosenberg
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Extra resources for Chemical Thermodynamics. Basic Concepts and Methods
Therefore, a negative value for W signiﬁes that the system has done work on its surroundings; a positive value signiﬁes that work has been done on the system by some agency in the surroundings. As the concept “work” focuses on an interaction of the system with its surroundings, we shall deﬁne work in terms of the external force F0, rather than F, the force exerted by the system. For example, let us consider a spring subject to an external force F0, where the restoring force of the spring is F. Mathematically, work is deﬁned as the line integral of the scalar product of the external force vector F0 and an inﬁnitesimal displacement vector ds, in this case the change in length of the spring.
Edited by Irving M. Klotz and Robert M. Rosenberg Copyright # 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 29 30 THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS circle or to recognize one. The development of mature scientiﬁc insight involves, in part, the recognition that an early “intuitive understanding” at the primitive level often is not sound and sometimes may lead to contradictory conclusions from two apparently consistent sets of postulates and observations. The operational approach to the deﬁnition of fundamental concepts in science has been emphasized by Mach, Poincare, and Einstein and has been expressed in a very clear form by Bridgman .
Kuhn, Am. J. Phys. 23, 95 (1955). REFERENCES 7 3. H. L. Callendar, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 23, 153 (1911); V. LaMer, Am. J. Phys. 23, 95 (1955). 4. E. Clapeyron, J. Ecole Polytech. (Paris) 14, 153 (1834); Mendoza, Motive Power of Fire. 5. R. Clausius, Pogg. Ann. Series III 79, 368, 500 (1859); Series V 5, 353 (1859); Ann. Phys. 125, 353 (1865); Mendoza, Motive Power of Fire. 6. J. W. Gibbs, Trans. Conn. Acad. Sci. 3, 228 (1876); The Collected Works of J Willard Gibbs, Yale University Press, New Haven, CT, 1928; reprinted 1957.
Chemical Thermodynamics. Basic Concepts and Methods by I. Klotz, R. Rosenberg