Chemical Thermodynamics. Basic Concepts and Methods by I. Klotz, R. Rosenberg PDF

By I. Klotz, R. Rosenberg

ISBN-10: 0471780154

ISBN-13: 9780471780151

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Therefore, a negative value for W signifies that the system has done work on its surroundings; a positive value signifies that work has been done on the system by some agency in the surroundings. As the concept “work” focuses on an interaction of the system with its surroundings, we shall define work in terms of the external force F0, rather than F, the force exerted by the system. For example, let us consider a spring subject to an external force F0, where the restoring force of the spring is F. Mathematically, work is defined as the line integral of the scalar product of the external force vector F0 and an infinitesimal displacement vector ds, in this case the change in length of the spring.

Edited by Irving M. Klotz and Robert M. Rosenberg Copyright # 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 29 30 THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS circle or to recognize one. The development of mature scientific insight involves, in part, the recognition that an early “intuitive understanding” at the primitive level often is not sound and sometimes may lead to contradictory conclusions from two apparently consistent sets of postulates and observations. The operational approach to the definition of fundamental concepts in science has been emphasized by Mach, Poincare, and Einstein and has been expressed in a very clear form by Bridgman [2].

Kuhn, Am. J. Phys. 23, 95 (1955). REFERENCES 7 3. H. L. Callendar, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 23, 153 (1911); V. LaMer, Am. J. Phys. 23, 95 (1955). 4. E. Clapeyron, J. Ecole Polytech. (Paris) 14, 153 (1834); Mendoza, Motive Power of Fire. 5. R. Clausius, Pogg. Ann. Series III 79, 368, 500 (1859); Series V 5, 353 (1859); Ann. Phys. 125, 353 (1865); Mendoza, Motive Power of Fire. 6. J. W. Gibbs, Trans. Conn. Acad. Sci. 3, 228 (1876); The Collected Works of J Willard Gibbs, Yale University Press, New Haven, CT, 1928; reprinted 1957.

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