By Pratima Bajpai
This publication offers the main updated info to be had on a number of biotechnological approaches worthy within the pulp and paper undefined. all of the twenty chapters covers a selected biotechnological method or process, discussing the benefits, obstacles, and destiny customers of crucial and well known methods utilized in the undefined. issues lined comprise tree development, pulping, bleaching, deinking, fiber amendment, biosolids administration, and biorefining.
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Extra resources for Biotechnology for Pulp and Paper Processing
Some pulp processing steps that remove pulp impurities are screening, defibering, and deknotting. Residual spent cooking liquor from chemical pulping is washed from the pulp using pulp washers, called brown stock washers for Kraft and red stock washers for sulfite. Efficient washing is critical to maximize return of cooking liquor to chemical recovery and to minimize carryover of cooking liquor (known as washing loss) into the bleach plant, because excess cooking liquor increases consumption of bleaching chemicals.
Once potentially valuable genes are located, they can be cloned and improved strains of the same or other tree species can be created. An attempt is made to change the chemical structure of trees by genetic engineering. More precisely, research is aimed at structural modifications of lignin, the environmentally pernicious component of wood. The role of the genetic engineering of trees could develop into providing the pulp industry with tailor-made fibers. Genetically modified trees are an example of an integrated technology: by substituting the current raw material, the overall process becomes less polluting.
The web in these cases continues into a second drying operation before entering the calendaring stacks that are part of the finishing operation. Moisture content should be about 4–6% as predetermined by the mill. If the paper is too dry, it may become too brittle. About 90% of the cost of removing water from the sheet occurs during the pressing and drying operations. Most of the cost is for the energy required for drying. At the end of the paper machine, paper continues onto a reel for winding to the desired roll diameter.
Biotechnology for Pulp and Paper Processing by Pratima Bajpai