Read e-book online An Introduction to R Software for Statistical Modelling & PDF

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It is important to remember that elements of a vector are expected to be of the same mode. So an expression > c(1:3,"a","b","c") will produce an error message. scan Function The scan function is used to enter in data at the terminal. This is useful for small datasets but tiresome for entering in large datasets. A more comprehensive summary of how data is read from files will be discussed in the session on ’importing and exporting’. An example of reading data in from the terminal is shown below.

Concatenation function: > L2 <- list(x=c(1,5,6,7), y=c("apple","orange","melon","grapes")) > c(L1,L2) $Item1 [1] 2 4 3 4 1 5 3 1 1 2 3 3 5 2 1 3 2 3 5 1 $Item2 [1] "a" "b" "c" "d" "e" "a" "b" "c" "d" "e" "a" "b" [13]"c" "d" "e" "a" "b" "c" "d" "e" $Item3 [1] 0 0 2 1 1 0 2 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 3 0 2 $x [1] 1 5 6 7 $y [1] "apple" "orange" "melon" "grapes" Append Function: > append(L1,L2,after=2) $Item1 [1] 2 4 3 4 1 5 3 1 1 2 3 3 5 2 1 3 2 3 5 1 $Item2 [1] "a" "b" "c" "d" "e" "a" "b" "c" "d" "e" "a" [12]"b" "c" "d" "e" "a" "b" "c" "d" "e" $x [1] 1 5 6 7 c CSIRO Australia, 2005 Course Materials and Exercises R Objects 59 $y [1] "apple" "orange" "melon" "grapes" $Item3 [1] 0 0 2 1 1 0 2 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 3 0 2 Adding elements to a list can be achieved by • adding a new component name: > L1$Item4 <- c("apple","orange","melon","grapes") # alternative way > L1[["Item4"]] <- c("apple","orange","melon","grapes") • adding a new component element, whose index is greater than the length of the list L1[[4]] <- c("apple","orange","melon","grapes") > names(L1)[4] <- c("Item4") There are also many functions within R that produce a list as output.

Names of lists can also be altered in a similar way to that shown for data frames. > names(L1) <- c("Item1","Item2","Item3") Indexing lists can be achieved in a similar way to how data frames are indexed: c CSIRO Australia, 2005 Course Materials and Exercises R Objects 58 > L1$Item1[L1$Item1>2] [1] 4 3 4 5 3 3 3 5 3 3 5 Joining two lists can be achieved either using the concatenation function or the append function. The following two scripts show how to join two lists together using both functions.

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An Introduction to R Software for Statistical Modelling & Computing by Kuhnert&Venable


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