By Kuo-Nan Liou (Eds.)
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The angle ZOS, measured by the arc PD of this circle, is equal to the sun's zenith distance ()o. In the spherical triangle NPD, the arc ND is equal to 90° minus the solar inclination 0 which is the angular distance of the sun north (positive) or south (negative) of the equator. The arc NP is equal to 90° minus the latitude A of the observation point, and the angle h is the hour angle, or the angle through which the earth must turn to bring the meridian of P directly under the sun. From the spherical trigonometry, the cosine of the solar zenith angle as given in Appendix F is cos()o = sin x sin » + cos t cos acos s.
1 > 0). 65) In Eqs. 1,¢) and 1(0; -/l,¢) represent, respectively, the inward source intensities at the bottom and top surfaces (see Fig. 13). ,----- T=O T Bottom ----"'-------------,. 13 Upward and downward intensities in a finite, plane-parallel atmosphere. Exercises 25 For planetary applications, it is desirable to measure the emergent outward intensities at the top and bottom of the atmosphere in conjunction with remote sensing of atmospheric compositions, and radiative balance studies. Upon setting T = 0 in Eq.
5 shows the variation of the estimated sea-surface temperature based on their investigation. The dotted line depicts a plot of orbital eccentricity variations. The upper and lower curves are the 23,000 and 40,000-year frequency components extracted from the estimated sea-surface temperature by a statistical filter method. 5 "If. --J'\. _..... 5 Variation in eccentricity and climate over the past 500,000 years. Dashed line in the center shows variations in the estimated sea-surface temperature T,.
An Introduction to Atmospheric Radiation by Kuo-Nan Liou (Eds.)