By Christopher J Barrow
An creation to runoff agriculture - a sort of agricultural irrigation - this article describes how using floor and subsurface water, usually neglected and wasted, permits either small farmers and advertisement agriculturists to enhance yields and the protection of harvest, even in harsh and distant environments. The textual content introduces the innovations and methods, in addition to the demanding situations and the potential for the an important process, that could give a contribution a lot to lowering land degradation and bettering conservation and sustainability.
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Extra info for Alternative irrigation: the promise of runoff agriculture
587 subject : Runoff irrigation. uk Earthscan is an editorially independent subsidiary of Kogan Page Limited and publishes in association with WWF-UK and the International Institute for Environment and Development This book is printed on 50 per cent recycled paper Page v CONTENTS List of Figures, Boxes and Tables ixList of Photographs xiList of Acronyms and Abbreviations xiiiPreface xvAcknowledgements xvii 1 Introduction 1Runoff Agriculture and Land Husbandry 5Runoff Agriculture: Definition and Character 7 2 Soil and Water Conservation (SWC) 12Soil and Water Conservation in Practice 21Soil and Water Conservation Techniques 22Soil and water conservation by agronomic techniques 23Soil and water conservation by mechanical techniques 31Soil and water conservation by vegetative techniques 44Labour Input and Costs of Soil and Water Conservation 46The Role of Women in Soil and Water Conservation 48 3 Runoff Harvesting and Storage 49Runoff Harvesting Techniques 54Roaded catchments 55Enhanced catchments 55Microcatchments 57Macrocatchments 60Liman systems 61Terraced wadi systems 65Warping 65Hillside conduit systems 66Fog and Mist Harvesting 66Dew Harvesting 67Subsurface Runoff Harvesting 68Runoff Harvesting in Practice 70Runoff Harvesting Costs 73 Page vi 4 Ephemeral and Variable Streamflow: Spate, Wetlands and Flood Agriculture 74Spate Agriculture 75Storage of Floodwater and Heavy Runoff 79Wetlands, Swamp and Flood Agriculture 82Dambos 84Fadamas 84Bolis 84Wet Field, Drained Field and Raised Field or Raised Bed Agriculture 85River Flood Agriculture 87Flood-Tolerant Rice and Floating Rice 89Aquatic Crops 89 5 Indigenous Runoff Agriculture: Challenges and Breakdown 91Why Does Breakdown Occur?
Unfortunately, SWC methods have not always been sensibly appraised before implementation, and past colonial extension activities may also have turned people against measures, even decades after independence. Page 12 2 SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION (SWC) This chapter examines soil and water conservation (SWC), focusing on its value for good land husbandry and for runoff agriculture. Coverage includes: indigenous SWC (some term this traditional SWC or view it as part of ethno-engineering); more recently developed techniques; and the value of SWC for crop production, pasture, forestry (especially in drylands and steep lands), land rehabilitation, and green development (Cheleq and Dupriez, 1988; Sandys-Winsch and Harris, 1994).
So far, even in developed countries, disappointing progress has been made in countering soil degradation. It is also important not to allow the continued decline in food production by smallfarmers and to sustain pastures and forests. It is quite common to find that rural livelihood strategies have broken down or are probably about to. The reasons are manifold, and include: population increase; globalization; penetration of capitalism into subsistence economies; social change; civil unrest; and the impact of structural adjustment programmes, to name but a few.
Alternative irrigation: the promise of runoff agriculture by Christopher J Barrow