By World Health Organization
This e-book provides revised guide values for the 4 commonest air toxins - particulate topic, ozone, nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide - according to a contemporary overview of the accrued medical proof. the reason for choice of each one guide price is supported through a synthesis of data rising from examine at the overall healthiness results of every pollutant. consequently, those directions now additionally follow globally. they are often learn together with Air caliber instructions for Europe, second version, that is nonetheless the authority on instruction values for all different air toxins.
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Extra resources for Air Quality Guidelines: Global Update 2005
9. Annual average nitrogen dioxide concentrations in 2000–2005 reported from selected cities worldwide 0 Asia Beijing Lahore Gangzhou Shanghai Seoul Jakarta Calcutta Tokyo Taipei Busan Hong Kong Osaka Ho Chi Minh City New Delhi Bangkok Singapore Dhaka Mumbai Hanoi Latin America São Paulo Mexico City Bogotá North America Los Angeles Chicago New York Boston Houston Montreal Vancouver Africa Cairo Johannesburg Cape Town Europe Paris Athens Barcelona Rome Munich Oslo Brussels Vienna Zurich London Warsaw Prague Berlin Helsinki Copenhagen Stockholm 20 Concentration (μg/m3) 40 60 80 100 G L O B A L A M B I E N T A I R P O L L U T I O N C O N C E N T R AT I O N S A N D T R E N D S 49 concentrations in 2002 ranged from 27 μg/m3 to 77 μg/m3, with an average for 19 measurement sites of 51 μg/m3 (54).
Cities such as Singapore, Hong Kong, Shanghai, Beijing, Tokyo, Kuala Lumpur and Bangkok have developed light rail and mass transit systems to reduce the pressure on the roads and provide an opportunity to reappraise citywide transportation plans (58). For sulfur dioxide, however, a downward trend is evident in Asian large cities such as Bangkok, Mumbai and Seoul. In Chinese cities, too, there has been a clear reduction in sulfur dioxide levels during the last ten years, as shown in Fig. 10. In general, air pollution in northern cities is more severe than in southern cities.
Urban scale processes. In: Hewitt CN, Jackson A, eds. Handbook of atmospheric science, principles and applications. Oxford, Blackwell, 2003. 3. Smith DJT, Harrison RM. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in atmospheric particles. In: Harrison RM, Van Grieken R, eds. Atmospheric particles. John Wiley & Sons, 1998:253–294 (IUPAC Series on Analytical and Physical Chemistry of Environmental Systems, Vol. 5). 4. Charron A, Harrison RM. 5–10) particulate matter on a heavily trafficked London highway: sources and processes.
Air Quality Guidelines: Global Update 2005 by World Health Organization