By Dr. Robert Guderian (auth.)
Emissions of gaseous air toxins have elevated within the final years despite elevated controls and situation for air caliber. Predictions of destiny improvement additionally point out additional elevate in emissions has to be anticipated. From an intensive research of gasoline use in traditional energy vegetation in and for family heating, Brocke and Schade (1971) and Schade (1975) expect that sulfur dioxide (S02) emissions within the Federal Republic of Germany increases from '3. five million t in 1969, over four. 2 million t in 1973, to four. 6 million t in 1980. Rasch (1971) predicts that emission of hydrogen chloride (HCI) from burning of wastes increases from a gift 8000 t/year to approximately one hundred thousand t in 1980. Emission of gaseous fluoride compounds, in North Rhine Westphalia by myself, are anticipated to extend from 7500 t in 1969 to 8800 t in 1985 (MAGS, 1972). related predic tions have additionally been made within the united states (Heggestadt and Heck, 1971). A doubling of S02 emissions from oil and especially coal-fired energy crops is predicted among 1960 and 1980 (Wood, 1968; Lewis et aI. , 1974). while it's thought of that overall keep an eye on of air pollution is technically and particularly economically most unlikely, it can be crucial that, sooner or later, emissions are managed inside of a technical and financial framework to such an quantity that ambient pollutant concentrations close to the floor current no possibility to guy or his surroundings (BImSchG, 1974).
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Extra info for Air Pollution: Phytotoxicity of Acidic Gases and Its Significance in Air Pollution Control
Experiments on the influence of light intensity on plant susceptibility have shown that a positive correlation exists between foliar injury and increasing light intensity up to 38000 lux during exposure. , 1965; Heck, 1966). For some species, sensitivity to S02 (Zimmermann, 1950) and to ozone (Heck, 1966; Heggestad and Heck, 1971) increases up to full sunlight intensity. Little information is available concerning the effects on the interaction of light quality with phytotoxicants on plant sensitivity.
As the wilting point was approached, sensitivity decreased greatly. Additional water above the point which guarantees optimal growth, however, has little effect on sensitivity, as shown in experiments with HCI. Van Haut (1961) and Zahn (1963 b) found reduced reactions to S02 on plants that had been deprived of water but had not yet begun to wilt. Setterstrom and Zimmermann (1939) studied the effects of soil moisture on the sensitivity of buckwheat (F. esculentum) before and during fumigation. Plants optimally supplied with water before fumigation exhibited much more extensive leaf necrosis than plants with a succulent habit that had been deprived of water before fumigation, even when moisture content of all soils was the same during fumigation.
Exposure to N0 2 and then to S02 caused no change in the effects of S02, but a strong increase in effects of S02 was observed when plants were exposed first to S02 and then to N0 2 (Matsushima and Taylor, cited in Matsushima and Brewer, 1972). The relatively few studies on effects of pollutants in combination allow no quantitative statements on the hazards to vegetation exposed to such pollutant complexes. In general, however, the risk of injury to vegetation is greater when several pollutants occur together.
Air Pollution: Phytotoxicity of Acidic Gases and Its Significance in Air Pollution Control by Dr. Robert Guderian (auth.)