By P. Bernier
This edited paintings includes 8 wide, review-type contributions by means of prime scientists within the box of artificial metals. The authors have been invited via the organisers of the foreign convention on technological know-how and know-how of man-made Metals '98 (ICSM'98) to study the growth of analysis some time past twenty years in a unifying and pedagogical demeanour. the current paintings highlights the cutting-edge of the sector and assesses the customers for destiny study.
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Extra info for Advances in Synthetic Metals: Twenty years of progress in science and technology
Clearly, monoalkyl dihalobenzenes cause a regioselectivity problem, which can be avoided by using the corresponding 2,5-dialkyl compounds 6. 3, that the modification of the electropositive partner in organometallic 41 40 b E’ 6 7 d 39 Scheme 7 Synthetic routes towards PPP. 20 Yearsof "SyntheticMetals" 23 compounds plays an important role. Unlike the dilithio or dimagnesio analogues, from which they are made, benzene diboronic acid 7 could easily be isolated and purified and then coupled with dibromoarenes in a palladium-catalyzed process (scheme 7 (4)) .
The polymers obained by this method are often referred to as "high quality PTs" because of their high purity and good physical properties, but due to the lack of solubilizing groups these polymers are insoluble and therefore difficult to process. 3, the introduction of solubilizing alkyl groups leads to tractable and processable materials. The first approach towards Sugimoto and Yoshino FeCI3 95 94 Wudl 1. Mg, Et20, reflux 2. Ni(dppp)CI2, anisol, 100~ 96 20 Yamamoto Ni(COD)2, P(Ph)3 Br-~~~Br DMF, 60~ - 80~ 97 Scheme 22 Chemical approach towards unsubstituted PT.
An interesting variant is the transition-metal-induced coupling of dihaloaryls 75 and 78 with bis-tributyl-stannylethylene 76 to yield o-PPV 77 and m-PPV 79 by the Stille reaction (scheme 15) [l17f]. The ortho- and meta- subunits present in these structures provide, on the one hand, improved solubility. On the other, these units interrupt the w-conjugation and induce a localization of the charges on the stilbene building blocks. The Wurtz-type polymerization reaction represents another type of polycondensation reaction towards PPV [l17d], where a chromium bisacetate mediated reductive coupling of bis(geminal)xylenetetrachloride 80 yields, due to the arylsubstituents at the stilbene units, soluble PPVs (scheme 16).
Advances in Synthetic Metals: Twenty years of progress in science and technology by P. Bernier