By Tibor R. Machan
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Extra info for A Primer on Ethics
Furthermore, we may eventually find it possible to measure at least the intensity of other experiences, which could then become other goals to be pursued. More complex forms of pleasure, however, such as emotional satisfaction, are the products WHAT Is MORALLY GOOD AND RIGHT? IJIfi' 43 of learning and opportunity. They are not inherent in human nature. These complex pleasures or satisfactions are thus not universalizable, because not all people can refer to them. The possibility of conflict within oneself and among different people increases considerably when complex pleasures are taken as goals that we should all pursue.
Advocates hold that utilitarianism succeeds in comparison with other theories. It makes sense and can be used to conduct one's life, whereas other theories fail on both counts. Act and rule utilitarianism. Ethical discussions usually consider two forms of utilitarianism. Act utilitarianism is the position that on each separate occasion when we decide to do WHAT Is MORALLY GOOD AND RIGHT? IfJ1 47 something, we must first determine what will contribute most to the greatest happiness of the greatest number and then act accordingly.
J. Ayer, a prominent noncognitivist, proposed emotivism, the idea that ethical claims are disguised manifestations of emotion. 1 Noncognitivists include the logical positivists. According to these philosophers, only judgments or statements that could be confirmed by observation could set forth something we know to be true or false. Naturalism Naturalists maintain that ethics is based on human nature. (There are some variations. ) Human nature supposedly encompasses any facts that make us human beings.
A Primer on Ethics by Tibor R. Machan